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From Columbus to Churchill: Heroes, Villains, and Confronting Racism.

S. M. Ghazanfar (Editor), Robert Eddy (Co-Editor)

Availability: Forthcoming
Published: 2021
Page #: xviii + 320
Size: 6 x 9
ISBN: 978-1568593890
bibliography, index, notes

Quick Overview

This edited volume presents a collection of essays on what scholars have called the “darker side” of some prominent Western historical figures. It is argued that our heroes are so firmly canonized for their “unquestioned greatness” that the discordant moments of European conquests are easily forgotten and the darker side of the historical process is either overlooked or deliberately suppressed—and hardly covered in the mainstream literature. This book aims to fill that void and documents the “other” side of seven historical figures—Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Alfonso de Albuquerque, Andrew Jackson, King Leopold, Cecil Rhodes, and Winston Churchill. An additional essay focuses on the role of a few voyagers in the Caribbean region.

Indeed, the voyages and conquests of some of these figures were grounded in the 15th-century Papal Bulls (together known as the Doctrine of Discovery): “to invade, capture, vanquish, and subdue all Saracens and pagans and other enemies of Christ; to reduce them to perpetual slavery, to convert them to Christianity, and to capture great wealth by force of arms from the Infidels.”

Here is a glimpse of the “darker side” of each name: (1) Christopher Columbus: In a book of his “biblical prophecies,” Columbus discussed his apocalyptic vision as a messiah, which justified his brutalities upon native population in the process of “Christianizing.” Further, he assumed, as one of his missions was to destroy Mecca and Medina, exhume the body of Prophet Mohammed and hold it ransom to recover Jerusalem. (2) Vasco da Gama: First European to sail from Portugal to India. The Papal Bulls guided Gama to do “God’s work” and, in the pursuit of his messianic mission, he inflicted extreme violence upon the natives. He would often “take captives, chop off their limbs and string them in pieces on the masts of his ships to intimate others.” (3) Alfonso de Albuquerque: The architect of Portuguese Inquisition of Goa, his suppression of the natives was brutal. ”The bodies of men, women, the pregnant, babies in arms, were thrown to the crocodiles; the destruction was so great that the river was filled with blood and dead bodies.” (4) Andrew Jackson: The seventh U.S. President was the architect of the “Trail of Tears.” His Indian Removal Act (1830) advocated policies for the elimination of the Indian in order for the settlers “to advance rapidly in population, wealth and power.” (5) King Leopold: Aside from his “philanthropy” and humanitarianism,” he was also known as a ruthless man who “wasn’t afraid to lie or kill in order to expand Belgium’s power.” Known for his brutal methods to control and enslave the Congolese tribes as ivory hunters, porters, and as rubber harvesters. Deviants were murdered or had their hands chopped off. (6) Cecil Rhodes: Known for the Rhodes Scholarship, he was the architect of South African apartheid; he believed in the Anglo-Saxon master race. He argued for despotism in relations with the “barbarians” of South Africa. (7) Winston Churchill: Known as the victorious WWII leader, his imperialist, racist views, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of independent movements have generated considerable controversy. One of his famous quotes: “I am strongly in favor of poisoned gas against uncivilized Arabs and Indians—more merciful than high explosives” (quoted in The Guardian, 9/1/13).

Written by well-established scholars, each essay is based on well-documented, authentic sources.

author

S. M. Ghazanfar (Editor)

Dr. S.M. Ghazanfar, Prof./Chair-Emeritus (Economics/History), 1968-2008; Founding Director, International Studies Program, University of Idaho. Author of four books, over 160 refereed/professional publications. Numerous recognitions include Hall of Fame (UK-based), Distinguished Alumni Achievement Award, Hall of Honors, 2007, Washington State University; Idaho Treasure Award, 2009; Legendary Locals of Idaho, 2013; numerous faculty-excellence/outstanding-faculty awards, and other teaching/research and community honors/awards.
author

Robert Eddy (Co-Editor)

Dr. Robert Eddy is originally from the University of Durham, England, where he studied the rhetoric of politics, science, and religion, now a Professor of English Literature, Washington State University, Pullman. Directed academic writing programs at universities in China and Egypt; Director of Composition at this University from 2002 through 2010. He won the University of North Carolina Board of Governors’ Award for Excellence in Teaching, 2001. Has published several peer-reviewed books and professional papers.

Foreword.

Introduction.

Chapter 1. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506): A Saint or Marauding Crusader?
Author: Habeeb Salloum, M.S.M., is a full-time author/free-lance writer, chiefly specializing in Middle-East/African history. His refereed articles have appeared in academic journals, such as Canadian Ethnic Studies, Saskatchewan History, and The Muslim World (Hartford Seminary). He has written several books—e.g., Journey Back to Arab Spain (The Middle East Studies Center, 1994), Arabic Contributions to the English Vocabulary (Librairie du Liban, 1996), and others. Has published articles on Christopher Columbus in the Aramco World and elsewhere. Recipient of numerous awards, including the prestigious Governor General of Canada’s Meritorious Service Medal for his work in Canadian studies.

Chapter 2. Vasco da Gama’s 1498 Voyage to India:
Messianism, Mercantilism, and Sacred Exploits.
Author: Dr. S.M. Ghazanfar, Prof./Chair-Emeritus (Economics/History), 1968-2008; Founding Director, International Studies Program, University of Idaho. Author of four books, over 160 refereed/professional publications. Numerous recognitions include Hall of Fame (UK-based), Distinguished Alumni Achievement Award, Hall of Honors, 2007, Wash. State University; Idaho Treasure Award, 2009; Legendary Locals of Idaho, 2013; numerous faculty-excellence/outstanding-faculty awards, and other teaching/research and community honors/awards.

Chapter 3. Alfonso de Albuquerque (1453-1515): The Iron-Handed Governor of Estado de India.
Author: Dr. S. M. Ghazanfar.

Chapter 4. Andrew Jackson (1767-1845): The Audacious Practices of an Unprincipled Man.
Author: Dr. Dianne Baumann, a registered descendent of the Blackfeet Nation, is an assistant professor of Anthropology and American Indian Studies at the University of Idaho in Moscow. She received her PhD in Cultural Anthropology from the University of Washington (2019). Her dissertation, “Blackfeet Men, ‘Toxic’ Masculinity, and Gender Entanglement,” examines how some Blackfeet men negotiate the entanglements of settler colonialism, gender, and masculinity to provide better lives for themselves and their communities. Her research interests include.

Chapter 5. Legacy of King Leopold II (1835-1909): Colonialism and Conflict in the Congo.
Author: Dr. Akanmu G. Adebayo, professor of history, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, Georgia. Formerly Director of the Center for Conflict Management; Executive Director of the Institute for Global Initiatives. Author, co-author, and co-editor of several books, and several articles published in scholarly journals. Latest is a co-edited book entitled "Atone: Religion, Conflict and Reconciliation" (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2018). Serves as Series Editor, “Conflict and Security in the Developing World,” for Lexington Books. His current research projects relate to Africa and the African Diaspora.

Chapter 6. Cecil John Rhodes (1853-1902): Victorian Hero, Post-Colonial Villain.
Author: Dr. Paul Maylam, Emeritus Professor of History, Rhodes University, South Africa. Author of six books, and co-editor of a seventh: Rhodes, the Tswana and the British (1981); A History of the African people of South Africa (1986); South Africa’s Racial Past (2001); The Cult of Rhodes (2005); Enlightened Rule (2011); Rhodes University, 1904-2016 (2017).

Chapter 7. Winston Churchill (1874-1965) and His Rhetoric of the Less Than Human.
Author: Dr. Robert Eddy is originally from the University of Durham, England, where he studied the rhetoric of politics, science, and religion, now a Professor of English Literature, Washington State University, Pullman. Directed academic writing programs at universities in China and Egypt; Director of Composition at this University from 2002 through 2010. He won the University of North Carolina Board of Governors’ Award for Excellence in Teaching, 2001. Has published several peer-reviewed books and professional papers.

Chapter 8. The Historical Pirates of the Caribbean: Heroes or Villains?
Author: Dr. Akanmu G. Adebayo, professor of history, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, Georgia. See above.

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